There are known knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we know we don’t know. But there are also unknown unknowns. There are things we don’t know we don’t know.

Donald Rumsfeld

I like how Rumsfeld puts it:

Known knowns > Known unknowns > Unknown unknowns

When it doubt, shift left. Identify what you don’t know. Then come up with a strategy to deal with it. When done, collect lessons learned and turn the knowledge into wisdom. Oftentimes, making progress is as simple as that.

Photo credit: “Joint press conference of Donald Rumsfeld and David Tevzadze (May 7, 2002)” by Helene C. Stikkel on Wikimedia Commons (source)

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